Gerhard Lenski developed a theory which in essence is more of a synthesis rather than simply aligning the theory conflicts with the functional analysis. Although his theory specifically related to social stratification, but he is actually an attempt to uncover the history of mankind for ten centuries into a sociological model. The combination of conflict and functionalist assumptions Lenski, as outlined in the quote beginning this chapter, created in an evolutionary framework. According to Lenski only evolutionary theory that can analyze the structure and process is limited by a series of traveling without both a short time.
Lenski stratification theory, therefore, tried to unite the efforts of the functionalist and conflict theorist to explain the existence and operation classes sosial.functionalist and conflict rested on two traditions are based on differences in assumptions about human nature and the nature of society. Functionalism relies on conservative tradition which saw stratification is important to meet the needs of society as a whole. On the other hand, conflict theory questioned the existence of “social needs. He is more concerned with a variety of needs, desires, and interests of individuals and sub-groups (rather than with the broader society) in their struggle to obtain goods and services that are valuable and rare. Such differences reflect the contradictory assumptions about human nature.
Lenski states that the functionalists emphasize the social nature of human beings: that human beings can not survive without both live in groups. However, at the same time, they “suspect hakiakat basic human and stressed the need for control over social agencies.
Lenski perspective on the whole dichotomy of categorical that look as good or bad human beings and society as a system or non-system rather than creating concepts that reflect the dichotomy of categorical yes or no, sociologists should try to establish the concepts of variables that reflect the degree to which a phenomenon present specific. Lenski states that fdungsional and conflict theory provides the propositions by which a single theory which can be obtained coatings.
Structural dynamics of the distribution system
By using the assumption of human nature from a more structural functional tradition of conservative and radical approach to conflict which, Lenski brings together two law develop goods and services. Both these polsulat, derived from assumptions Lenski, summarized as follows:
1.human are social creatures who need to live with the community
2. humans put them or the group’s main interests above the interests oaring or other groups (although they tried to conceal this fact on their own and of others)
3.human have an unlimited appetite for goods and services available in community
4. individu individuals inherited differences in the ability of business to obtain goods and services that are rare
Structure, coating systems
Lenski restrict the class as grouping people in society who are in the same position in terms of strength or some specific form of power, and prestige privilise. But in his discussion of Lenski focus is the class that thinked determine the distribution of power and perstise privilise in society with a surplus of goods so class is power In industrial societies are complex person can become a member of a number of class . class must be viewed from a multidimensional phenomenon.
Lenski restrict the class system as hirarkia classes are arranged in the levels of some single criterion Based on the postulates-postulates that diketengahakan dianamika on the structure and distribution systems, logically conclude that some propositions can be tested. Between propositions are
1. strata differences in the distribution systems will vary directly with the size of the surplus of a society
2. fast vertical mobility will tend to vary directly with the speed of social change and technology
3. hostilitystep is inversely related to grade level and above mobility
Proving the thesis stratification
Hunting and gathering society is a society where the techniques of food production is still primitive and not efisien. key to explain coating systems in such community is the absence of substantial economic surplus in the sense distribution goods almost evenly.
Horticulture society that has developed is very similar to hunting and gathering society in terms of scarcity of surplus make development of social class is more clear. As a result of increasing plantation techniques advanced horticulture society began to have a (slightly) surplus and then lead to a separate system. There we can see the origin of the class system is based primarily on the basis of birth rather than donations which can be given someone in the group.
Agrarian society is another important step, which may manifest through the discovery and utilization of animal plows. Lenski also showed that the production of technological progress offset by the progress of military technology, so that the techniques of fighting increasingly more industrial efisien societydescribe the next phase of evolutionary development of coating systems. In some ways this is very different society from an agrarian society. The emergence of industrial societies are ripe mark turning point of the first of an ancient evolutionary trend towards increasing differences .Lenski argues that his theory can be said is not a conservative or a radical theory, but is the integration of these two opposing theoretical perspective that explores theological developments over basic evolutionary framework
Critics of evolutionary synthesis Lenski
Lenski is very enthusiastic with the view of humans as the selfish creature alone . asumsi This is the core theory developed oeleh and is exactly the picture of humanity with the human model functionalism. However, Lenski writes’ adherence to rules can be explained solely as a form of awareness of personal interests “
From concept Lenski concluded that humans rarely have the freedom and is usually determined by the innate essence of selfishness, but somewhat restrained by the norms of social structure. Lenski social theory are more inclined towards the perspective of conflict rather than gambaranya about orang.dia reluctant to accept an established system of abstract and without turbulence.
Lenski coating study approach to addressing the historical use patterns that can be found among the historical facts of the particular. He asserted that the evolutionary model is correct and that must be analyzed is the community itself (not the abstract element)
Evolutionary model makes the social scientist can explore various developments and changes in social structure. It is also possible to identify various determinants of the structure which is the object of study. Identifying what it sees as the main determinant of social structure in human history:
1.warisan human genetics
2.teknologi which gradually formed to enhance this legacy
3.rintangan-barrier environment for human activities and technological developments, particularly the environment that impede the flow of information from other communities
4.chalange hard among the public in an effort to maintain the territorial base sources