…….. Surga Kasih….

Kasih dekap hangat tanganmu memeluk kebahagiaan..

Ulurkan cinta pada sayap sang malaikat mimpi..

kAu kecup manis keningku dalam damainya kasih.

Membuat duka dan resah hilang sudah..

Inilah saat cinta menangkan hati…

ku bertekuk lutut dalam puisi mimpi..

akan kasih yang terlukis dalam kanvas jiwa..

tentang aku yang kan menjadi milikmu selamanya…

_ by : citra ayu maharani_

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KODAK SWOT ANALYSIS

Company Analysis

 

Organizational Structure

 

Kodak is one of the oldest companies on the photography market, established more than100 years ago. This was the iconic, American organization, always on the position of the leader.Its cameras and films have become know all over the world for its innovations. Kodaks strengthwas it brand ± one of the most recognizable and resources, that enabled creating newtechnologies. Since the formation of Kodak, the company has remained the world’s leading film provider with virtually no competitors. That is until the arrival of Fuji Photo Film, which nowsurpasses Kodak in earnings per share and is viewed as the industries number two. It is evidentthat there has been a significant shift from the use of traditional film cameras to a market fullyfledged and saturated with modern and updated digital cameras and digital photographic tools.

Kodak not only sell pictures film, Kodak is enough number of lines to offer products and services (product diversification), such as digital images, Printer cartridges, paper and innovative equipment markers, which sell Kodak global. Furthermore, the aim and purpose of the overall quality of the Kodak is to achieve Total Customer Satisfaction. This is achieved by leveraging the appropriate process improvement techniques (e.g., Zero Defects, Supplier Certification, Lean, Six Sigma, etc.) in ways that deliver increased productivity and optimal deployment of resources.

The company is organized along three segments: the Graphic Communications Group (GCG); the Film, Photofinishing, Entertainment Group (FPEG); and the Consumer Digital Imaging Group (CDG). Thirty-nine percent of Kodak‘s revenue comes from the GCG segment, which provides products and services to businesses with large scale printing operations. Thirty-one percent of Kodak‘s revenue comes from the FPEG segment, which provides traditional photographic products and services to consumer, professional, and industrial markets. Thirty percent of Kodak‘s revenue comes from the CDG segment, which provides digital consumer products.

Kodak reacted slowly to the digital revolution. Since the takeoff of digital cameras, Kodak has seen revenues plummet from $15 billion to $9.4 billion (Butcher, 2009). Kodak has cut 40,000 jobs over the last five years, and plans to eliminate 3,500 to 4,500 in 2009 (Dobbin, 2009). Since 2003, Kodak has sought to meet this challenge with robust restructuring programs. Approximately 80% of Kodak revenue is from new products and services developed within the last five years (Butcher, 2009). Approximately 60% of Kodak employees have been there less than four years (Butcher, 2009).

However over the time, the situation started to change for Kodak, as it has underestimated thechanges on the market. There has been a significant shift from the use of traditional film camerasto a market fully fledged and saturated with modern and updated digital cameras and digital photographic tools. The age of digital technologies were emerging. The core business of Kodak-the film business, started to decline and some areas of the business started to be less profitableand filled with many competitors, especially cheap ones from Asia. Also, the prices of the digitalcameras were falling

 

Financial Analysis

 

Kodak faces the challenge of high restructuring costs and declining demand for its digital products, while trying to redefine its organizational structure and brand name. On top of company-specific problems, Kodak faces a stiff macro-economic headwind, as consumers continue to watch their spending on luxury items. To combat these problems, Kodak has cut costs via layoffs and reductions in R&D expenditures, removed dividend payments to common stockholders and targeted its cash conversion cycle. In the near term, Kodak appears to be poorly positioned to handle an extended economic contraction, and must act immediately to generate additional revenues and profits.

 

Kodak’s Current Marketing Strategy

 

Consumer

Kodak is likely targeting a segment of the consumer market that meets the following criteria:

  • adult, post-baccalaureate, 25-40 years old;
  •  (2) active/ involved;
  • (3) caring about relationships (friends & family);
  • (4) non-professional, sub-standard skills in photography;
  • (5) high interest in capturing images of life (freeze in time) and sharing those images in digital or printed form.

 

Positioning

Kodak‘s marketing decisions (explained below) imply the following positioning statement: Kodak is preferred by adults who are active, busy and care about meaningful relationships and want to encapsulate and share important moments in their lives, because Kodak’s products enable them to capture, share, display, and store pictures and create keepsakes, with more ease than competitors like Canon, Nikon, and Fujifilm.

 

Product

Kodak fails to offer clear, distinguishing benefits to consumers. The company attempts to position itself as a provider of  user-friendly products, typically offering products whose names include the word easy‘. However, some of Kodak‘s product attributes detract from the credibility of this position . Other than a long battery life, the Kodak EasyShare M1033 digital camera features few differentiating attributes that appeal to the user-friendly consumer. The Kodak EasyShare 5300 printer has a cumbersome interface and PC Loader tray that lacks built-in networking capability. Kodak‘s user-friendly‘ position is undermined with products that do not deliver the promised benefit.

Kodak develops products quickly due to its competitive environment. A comprehensive program designed to include all desirable features is nearly impossible due to the speed at which the industry evolves.

Product types face different risk scenarios depending on their newness to the company and their newness to the market. Digital cameras are familiar to the market and to Kodak. Thus, a line extension of Kodak‘s digital cameras creates a risk of cannibalization and a lack of incremental sales. Kodak‘s new approach to printers, with higher upfront costs and lower ink costs, presents different risks. The product type is new to the market and new to the company, representing a new to the world concept. Thus, the product introduction is at risk of a lack of company-market fit.

Using the economic pricing model, a firm strives to deliver products that demand a price premium over its competitors. Based on this, we compared the pricing of Kodak‘s core consumer products (digital cameras and inkjet printers), and its secondary consumer products (digital picture frames and Kodak Gallery), to the pricing of its direct competitors in each category. In the compact digital camera segment, Kodak‘s products are generally priced below the products of its most direct competitors of Canon, Nikon, and Fujifilm. For example, Kodak cameras sell in the range of $80 to $160, while cameras offered by the competitors sell in the range of $110 to $500 .

This price differential implies that Kodak is suffering from negative price differentiation. While a lower price may offer the benefit of capturing a large portion of the price sensitive consumer, we believe that the lower price signals lower quality to the consumer, when in actuality Kodak‘s cameras deliver comparable quality to that of its competitors. As a result, we believe that there is an opportunity for Kodak to raise its prices in this segment. The other consumer products do not suffer from negative price differentiation, and thus we do not believe an opportunity exists to change the pricing of these products .

 

 

 

Placement

Overall, Kodak‘s placement strategy is similar to that of its competitors, in each of the main consumer product categories. Digital cameras, inkjet printers, and digital picture frames, are typically sold through each company‘s website, and through all major retailers such as Best Buy, Target, and Wal-Mart, both in stores and online. The photo storage products are all offered exclusively online. Kodak‘s placement employs wide market coverage because its products are easily accessible to all consumers. It is difficult for Kodak to differentiate itself within the placement component of the marketing framework; however, it is important that it monitors the retailers to ensure both consistency across channels and alignment of objectives between itself and the retailers.

 

 

Promotion

Understanding the consumer

Kodak‘s target consumers have lower levels of expertise than an amateur photographer. They are typically more concerned about the moments captured in pictures and video rather than the art or technical skills required to do so. These consumers will likely look to an expert (or perceived expert) in the field of photography for advice if any questions arise. Thus, the level of involvement of Kodak‘s consumer tends to be low. While in some cases, consumers may do some research to learn about the product they‘re seeking, this type of research is typically shallow in technicalities or details. Once these consumers have learned what brands are reliable, where the best deals are, and how to obtain the product, they are ready to purchase. This is when Kodak must be ready to sell.

Marketing objectives

Increased sales is the ultimate marketing objective for Kodak. At the same time, Kodak‘s promotional strategy seems to have more specific goals depending on where the consumer is within the buying process. Prior to purchasing, Kodak wants to represent peace of mind‘, fun, and overall inspiration . Kodak also appeals to creative consumers who are interested in creating picture books, cards, t-shirts, and the like. These additional, creative options entice the consumer to invest more in Kodak products . Hence, after the first purchase, Kodak‘s goal is to create a repeat customer.

Reseller Analysis

The availability of products is vital to Kodak‘s success. Therefore, Kodak must ensure the consumer is directly connected to preferred retailers whenever they are ready to buy. Unfortunately, that is not always the case in Kodak‘s current marketing campaign. While Kodak is improving its presence amongst consumers by using several digital initiatives, it is not always clear what is the best way to obtain the products. There is not always a link or message that directs consumers to retailers Kodak prefers. Consequently, consumers interested in purchasing Kodak products may find inconsistent messages while searching for a channel

Marketing Communications

Kodak‘s marketing communications today are focused on triggering emotions and presenting an argument in favor of some of its product attributes. The company‘s latest campaign, ―It‘s time to smile,‖ stems from the consumer insight that today‘s work-life balance and the economic situation have negatively impacted relationships (Exhibit 3); even though, consumers perceive it is easier to connect with friends and family today than it was 5 years ago (thanks to e-mail, cell phones, and social networks) (Kodak, 2009). Kodak seeks to connect with the consumer at an emotional level and encourage them to smile and make others smile – all while capturing and sharing their newfound happy moments with Kodak products. However, the company fails to deliver a clear and differentiating promise that resonates with a meaningful number of consumers.

Even though Kodak‘s new integrated marketing campaign is present in all major social media channels (Facebook, Twitter, YouTube) the company‘s number of followers is significantly lower when compared with those of competitors and other successful brands. Kodak cannot afford to lose in the digital space as social media has the powerful effect of creating communities of ever-growing fans who evangelize the brand – all at a relatively low and fixed cost.

Currently Kodak does not utilize the services of a celebrity spokesperson. This reduces any risks of brand confusion or poor representation, commonly associated with endorsements. However, Kodak is betting too much on the strength of its brand alone, while competitors enlist the help of famous characters like Ashton Kutcher (Nikon), and Maria Sharapova (Canon) to energize its brand.

Promotion Conclusion

Overall, there seems to be a lack of buzz, energy, top-of-mind awareness, or fuel behind the Kodak brand. The current marketing campaigns are not driving the number of customers necessary to create the sense of community that Kodak is expecting, nor generating the revenues the company needs to survive.

 

SWOT ANALYSIS

SWOT Analysis, is a strategic planning tool used to evaluate the Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats involved in a project or in a business venture. It involves specifying the objective of the business venture or project and identifying the internal and external factors that are favorable and unfavorable to achieving that objective. The aim of any SWOT analysis is to identify the key internal and external factors that are important to achieving the objective. SWOT analysis groups key pieces of information into two main categories: Internal factors – The strengths and weaknesses internal to the organization. External factors – The opportunities and threats presented by the external environment. The internal factors may be viewed as strengths or weaknesses depending upon their impact on the organization’s objectives. What may represent strengths with respect to one objective may be weaknesses for another objective. The factors may include all of the 4P’s; as well as personnel, finance, manufacturing capabilities, and so on. The external factors may include macroeconomic matters, technological change, legislation, and socio-cultural changes, as well as changes in the marketplace or competitive position. The results are often presented in the form of a matrix. SWOT analysis is just one method of categorization and has its own weaknesses. For example, it may tend to persuade companies to compile lists rather than think about what is really important in achieving objectives. It also presents the resulting lists uncritically and without clear prioritization so that, for example, weak opportunities may appear to balance strong threats. 

Kodak SWOT Analysis

The main issue behind this case is the problems faced by the Eastman Kodak Company in the process of changing to Digital technology in printing. It failed to establish market share andmarket leadership in the Digital sector. It is threatened with either immediate or rapiddiversification in technology. Kodak has been extremely successful over the last century in filmsales and film development. Now the time has come for the Eastman Kodak to respond to thechallenges of digital cameras and also contemplate other issues as follows:

  • Will the companys current strengths and capabilities to make Kodak as The Picture Company´?
  • How serious are the weakness and competitive deficiencies?
  • Does the company have attractive market opportunities that are well suited with Kodaks resources? Does it have the internal resources to continue spending money investing innew technology?
  • What type of strategy should it use to enter the digital camera business and how will Kodak leverage its strategic resources?
  • Can Kodak once again dominate the world market?

Kodak started facing difficulties in 1984, when the Japanese firm Fuji Photo Film Co. invadedon Kodaks market share as customers switched to their products after launching a 400-speedcolor film that was 20% cheaper than Kodaks. Secondly, during 1980s the company failed torecognize the change in the environment and instead followed and sticked to a business modelthat was no longer valid for the post-digital age. After the management realized the change andreact accordingly but it was too late

 

Strategies of Eastman Kodak 

 

  • Vertical integration combined with continuous innovation and product development.Speed is also required cutting cycle times in manufacturing and product development.
  • To systematize and accelerate product development and improve product-launch, quality,Kodak introduced a new product development methodology called ManufacturingAssurance Process´(MAP).
  • Joint venture with HP, Microsoft to introduce new products that required in the market.Collaborate with expert to enhance the competency.
  • Digital strategy was to create greater coherence among Kodaks multiple digital projects.
  • Previously they had diversification strategy but later Fisher focus in Imaging business.

 

Kodaks strength and Competitive Capabilities

 

Kodaks strength can take several forms as follows:

  • Valuable intangible assets: Kodaks strengths were its brand equity and distribution presence. After almost a century of global leadership in the photographic industry, Kodak  possessed brand recognition and worldwide distribution. Kodak could bring new productsto consumers attention and to support these products with one of the worlds best knownand most widely respected brand names as a huge advantage in the market wheretechnological change created uncertainty for consumers. Kodaks brand reputation wassupported by its massive. , worldwide distribution presence ± primarily through retail photography stores, film processors, and professional photographers.
  • Competitive Capabilities: Prior to 1990s Kodak had invested huge in R&D. Moreover,its century of innovation and development of photographic images gave Kodak tremendous depth of understanding of recording and processing images. Central to Kodaks imaging capability was its color management capability. In the digitizing color and transferring digital images to paper, Kodak possessed a powerful set of complementary technologies in sensing, color management and thermal printing.
  • Market advantage: Through its wider distribution network, it has been able to maintaina huge market coverage and accessibility. It had worldwide distribution presence ±  primarily through retail photography stores, film processors, and professional photographers.

 

Companys competence and Competitive capabilities

 

  • Competency: Eastman Kodak has been Leveraging competencies in film and paper media, color management. It has been known for the best quality films and cameras worldwide. Its journey of more than 100 years has helped to gain the experience and excel in its Endeavour. Theorganizational changes like decentralization and accountability that George Fisher made helpedincrease speed of manufacturing and product development .i.e short product development cycles.Secondly, a strength could be also considered Kodak’s favorable corporate image (and implicitlya significant brand equity) that results from the values which are said to lead the staff’s behaviors(“respect for the dignity of the individual, integrity, trust, credibility, continuous improvementand personal renewal, recognition and celebration”), a transparent management which allowsshareholders to have a realistic and up-to-date image of the operations performed, strong HumanResources policies and commitment to the community.
  • Core Competency: Eastman Kodak was a highly integrated company that did its own R&D andmanufactured its own parts. Changing global markets and cost pressures in the 1980s and 1990sthreatened the way of doing business. So the knowledge, company s intellectual capital are alsoaffected and repercussion is proficiency in its core competency started diminish. George Fisher,CEO in 1993, refocused the company on core competencies and joined the trend of outsourcingwith close relationships to suppliers and announced a new explicit social contract as part of therestructuring effort. By 1997, the company could not grow out of its competitiveness problemslike major price competition from its biggest international competitor, Fuji, which was engagedin a major price-cutting campaign aimed at increasing its market share internationally and particularly in U.S. markets. In response, Kodak made more significant changes designed to reduce its costs and to recapture market share in the companys core products. But all theseattempts only lead to decrease market share and declining profit.
  • Distinctive Competency: Firstly, the brand image of the company that has been built sincecentury is the distinctive competency for Kodak. Before the digital age, its distinctivecompetencies were film and Cameras and its sister concern for its chemical technology.
  • Opportunity: The market of photography is changing. There is a paradigm shift to digital world.The competition is increasing and repercussion is there is price war involved this business.Kodak has also entered into digital world but because of overwhelming price, its market share isdecreasing. So, it can grab the opportunity to provide the diverse market.

 

Threat and Weakness of the resources of the company

 

Threat

Kodaks greatest traditional competitor has been Fuji. Through the 1970s and 1980s Fuji has been the Kodaks major competitor overseas, particularly in Asia where each have about one-third market share. In the United States, Kodak had held a strong, but declining market share of 80% in the beginning of 1997. Through aggressive marketing and developing strongrelationships with distribution outlets, Fuji has also established a worldwide reputation for price,quality and marketing which has allowed it to have a strong following amongst professional photographers and gradually with the traditional consumer. Other potential threats to acompanys well being are as follows:-Emergence of digital world (shift in buyers need)-increasing intensity of competition during late 90s-slowdowns in market growth-High bargaining power of customers due to availability of other manufacturing company.

 

Weakness

 Its core competency could be innovative digital imaging when digital age was first coming but ithad no well developed or proven competency to fit the emerging demand. It had weak productinnovation capabilities. Also, the market share was declining because the competitors were providing the market needs.During Whitmore’s leadership, Kodak diversified into life sciences.

While entering the market of healthcare imaging (diagnostic equipment) was a proper fit, entering healthcare activities(nutritional supplements) and pharmaceuticals was not a wise decision. For a company likeKodak which has a very strong association with photography, entering a market that does not fitin with its image would not benefit the company

 

 

CONCLUTION

 

From above analysis, it is clear that company should focus on ST Strategy.i.e capitalize thestrength and avoid threats. The companys current strength and capabilities matter for the future.The serious weakness of Kodak is inability to react to the changes in the photography industry. If not corrected, it would be fatal for its future. The nature of business is ever changing; thecapacity to adopt the change is the industrys key success factors. The gap between therevolution and evolution of the strategy should be minimized in order to be competitive.From above SWOT analysis, following actions are recommended for improving companys strategy and respond accordingly.

The product innovation capabilities has to be enhanced either by rigorous investment inR&D or should integrate with other companies/ joint ventures or alliance that providevaluable technology, sophisticated collaboration or competencies to gain competitiveadvantage. It should continually change the basis of competition and seek multiplesources of competitive advantage. Moreover, organize to achieve new levels of alertnessthat helps to cope with the change in the market.

In order to reduce competitive liabilities, the lost market share can be regained throughadvertising and promotion along with the delivery of better quality product at affordable prices. The nature of business keeps on changing so the revolution in the market placeand evolution of the strategy of the company to meet the expectation should match. Themajor weakness is the inability to sense the change in the market and take actions to thatchange. So, the management and R&D should keep itself updated. The printing should given priority since it has better prospect and offer best potential for securing competitive advantage.

Recommendations

Kodak fails to position itself as the indisputable solution between today‘s consumers and their need for connection. Therefore, Kodak must focus on delivering a clearer message, a differentiating promise, and products that meet such a promise. For example: Kodak is the premier provider of imaging solutions that bring your loved ones within arm’s reach.

Additionally, Kodak‘s marketing campaign should present one path within the imaging process that allows the consumer to process the company‘s offerings. For instance, prioritize marketing efforts according to the following process (1 = highest priority): (1) take great pictures with Kodak digital cameras, (2) print quality pictures for less with Kodak photo printers (3) store your pictures at the KodakGallery, where you can create unique keepsakes (4) display your pictures in our industry-leading Kodak digital frames. Instead of overwhelming the consumer with all the options Kodak has to offer, focusing the message on one product at a time can be more effective for Kodak‘s target consumer.

We feel that additional emphasis should be placed on digital cameras, with the other products—printers, frames, and Kodak Gallery—supporting digital cameras as complementary products that round-out the digital imaging experience. Kodak‘s 120-year history as the premier provider of photography products lends itself to this strategy of emphasizing digital cameras. This focused strategy can be accomplished through changes in each of the components of the marketing framework, while keeping in mind the desired positioning for Kodak‘s product-line.

Because Kodak is targeting the novice photographer segment, it is important that its products incorporate easy-to-use attributes and automatic features that deliver high-quality photos. Currently, Kodak‘s digital cameras compete well on the number of functions offered yet do not necessarily differentiate themselves. The same holds true for the printer category with complaints of complicated interfaces, cumbersome loader trays, and a lack of built-in networking capabilities. Kodak should strive to simplify its products across its entire product line and further educate customers of the easy-to-use features through its marketing campaign.

Thus, Kodak should demand similar prices for its products. Kodak should be able to increase its prices by at least 20% on the competitively ranked cameras to signal quality to the consumer without decreasing volumes, thus increasing profitability. This price increase will address the problem Kodak faces with poor gross margins in the CDG segment, and lead this segment towards profitability in the future. Success with an increased pricing strategy is dependent on Kodak effectively communicating the brand quality to the consumer.

Kodak is dependent on its resellers to increase awareness and educate the consumers about its products. Kodak should work closely with its main retailers to encourage promotion of its digital product suite consisting of cameras, printers, frames, and Kodak Gallery. Kodak must first educate the retail sales representatives on the features of its products, namely the differentiating features that will focus on the ease-of-use theme. In addition, the products should be placed strategically within the stores, to encourage bundling of the Kodak product-line.

In promotions, Kodak needs to improve the level of energy behind the Kodak brand. For this purpose, a celebrity spokesperson could be highly effective. Because Kodak‘s consumer is relatively low involvement and the market is already cluttered with many reasonable options (Canon, Nikon, Sony, Casio, etc.), a credible spokesperson should serve to hold the consumer‘s hand and guide them to buy Kodak products.

The current advertising budget may need to be revised, but an increase is not automatically necessary. Kodak should continue leveraging and improving its presence on the Internet through various digital initiatives. Kodak implementing these recommendations will lead to increased sales and margins and ultimately allow the company to regain its position as a world leader in its industry.

 

 

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Misteri Mayat Diatas Kubah Masjid Nabawi

Misteri Mayat Diatas Kubah Masjid Nabawi

Qubbatul Khadhra’ (kubah hijau) yang terlihat megah di Masjid Nabawi berfungsi menaungi kuburan jasad Rasul Saw yang mulia didampingi kedua sahabatnya sekaligus mertuanya yaitu Abu Bakar Siddiq ra, dan Umar bin Khattab ra. Tempat tersebut dahulunya adalah rumah baginda Rasul Saw karena setiap Rasul yang diutus oleh Allah Swt dikuburkan di mana dia wafat.
Sebagaimana sabda Nabi Saw: Tidak dicabut nyawa seorang Nabi pun melainkan dikebumikan dimana dia wafat. (HR. Ibnu Majah)
Sejarah bercerita, ketika Nabi sampai di Madinah, pertama sekali dikerjakan Nabi Saw adalah membangun Masjid Nabawi dengan membeli tanah seharga 10 dinar kepunyaan dua orang anak yatim Sahl dan Suhail berukuran 3 x 30 m.
Bangunan yang sederhana itu hanya berdindingkan tanah yang dikeringkan, bertiangkan pohon kurma dan beratapkan pelepah kurma.
Sebelah Timur bangunan Masjid Nabawi dibangun rumah Nabi Saw, dan sebelah Barat dibangun ruangan untuk orang-orang miskin dari kaum Muhajirin yang pada akhirnya tempat itu dikenal dengan tempat ahli Suffah (karena mereka tidur berbantalkan pelana kuda).
Baru pada tahun ke-7 H, Nabi mengadakan perluasan Masjid Nabawi ke arah Timur, Barat, dan Utara sehingga berbentuk bujursangkar 45 x 45 m dengan luas mencapai 2.025 m2 dan program jangka panjang untuk memperluas Masjid Nabawi seperti yang kita lihat sekarang ini diisyaratkan oleh Nabi Saw dengan sabdanya menjelang wafat: “Selayaknya kita memperluas masjid ini”.
Hingga pada tahun ke-17 H, Amirul Mukminin Umar bin Khattab khalifah kedua, memperluas ke arah Selatan dan Barat masing-masing 5 m dan ke Utara 15 m, dan dilanjutkan oleh Usman bin Affan khalifah ketiga memperluas ke arah Selatan, Utara dan Barat masing-masing 5 m pada tahun ke-29 H.
Akhirnya pada masa Khalifah Bani Umayyah Al-Walid bin Abdul Malik pada tahun 88 H, memperluas ke semua sisi Masjid Nabawi termasuk ke arah Timur (rumah Nabi) dan kamar-kamar isteri Nabi (hujurat) sehingga makam Nabi Muhammad Saw, Abu Bakar Siddiq, dan Umar bin Khattab termasuk bagian dari masjid dan berada di dalam masjid yang sebelumnya terpisah dari masjid.
Inilah yang menjadi pembahasan para ulama dan fukaha di dalam Fikih Islam, yaitu mendirikan bagunan seperti rumah kubah, madrasah, dan masjid di atas kuburan. Karena Nabi Saw bersabda : Allah mengutuk umat Yahudi dan Nasrani yang membuat kuburan para nabi mereka menjadi masjid-masjid (tempat peribadatan). (HR. Bukhari Muslim)
Hadis di atas dipahami oleh sebagian ulama terutama di kalangan pengikut Syekh Muhammad bin Abdul Wahab (Th. 1115 H/ 1703 M di Masjid Saudi Arabia, dan aliran ini disebut oleh para rivalnya sebagai aliran Wahabiyah, dan di Indonesia dengan aliran Salafi).
Secara umum, tidak boleh melakukan kegiatan ibadah di atas kuburan, berdoa menghadap kuburan, dan membangun kubah di atas kuburan.

Terakhir ada seorang manusia yang memanjat kubah hijau Masjid Nabawi untuk dihancurkan, lalu disambar petir secara tiba-tiba dan mati. Mayatnya melekat pada kubah hijau tersebut dan tidak dapat diturunkan sampai sekarang. Syekh Zubaidy, ahli sejarah Madinah menceritakan ada seorang soleh di kota Madinah bermimpi, dan terdengar suara yang mengatakan “Tidak ada satu orang pun yang dapat menurunkan mayat tersebut, agar orang yang belakangan hari dapat mengambil, i’tibar”.
Hingga sekarang mayat tersebut masih ada dan dapat disaksikan langsung dengan mata kepala. Bagi yang tidak dapat berkunjung ke sana dapat mengakses internet google “Ada Mayat di atas Kubah Masjid Nabawi”.

Pelajaran yang dapat diambil dari kisah ini, terlepas dari kebenarannya, bahwa kembali kepada Tauhid yang murni seperti zaman Rasul Saw adalah tujuan dari dakwah Islam dan misi para Rasul dan umat Islam mesti menerimanya, jika tidak ingin menjadi orang musyrik. Akan tetapi pemeliharaan nilai sejarah dan para pelaku sejarah juga penting, karena Allah berfirman : Sungguh di dalam sejarah mereka terdapat pelajaran bagi orang-orang yang berakal. (QS. Yusuf : 111).
Akhirnya jika pelaku sejarah tidak boleh dikenang, tidak dimuliakan, tidak dihormati, kuburannya diratakan, bagaimana kita mengambil pelajaran dari sejarah tersebut? Adapun maksud Nabi Saw Allah mengutuk Yahudi dan Nasrani menjadikan kuburan sebagai tempat ibadah, adalah menyembah kuburan. Semoga kita dapat pelajaran. Wallahua’lam
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SSSStttt…. Alasan Cincin Kawin Dipasang di Jari Manis… !!

Jari manis manusia identik dengan cincin perkawinan. Banyak yang bertanya, kenapa cincin perkawinan harus disematkan di jari manis, tidak di jari lain?
Ada mitos yang menyebutkan bahwa ibu jari mewakili orangtua, jari telunjuk mewakili saudara-saudara (adik-kakak), jari kelingking tentang anak-anak, dan jari manis mewakili pasangan hidup.
~~
Setiap orang pasti memimpikan bila menjadikan pernikahan sebagai suatu peristiwa sakral yang pertama dan terakhir, serta mendapatkan pasangan hidup yang setia dan selalu ada di samping, baik dalam masa suka maupun duka. Karena itulah, meski sulit dibuktikan secara logis, jari manis kita sebagai “pelabuhan” cincin pernikahan terasa sulit dipisahkan bila telah disatukan.
~~
Untuk membuktikannya, tidak ada salahnya Anda mencoba gerakan di bawah ini:
1. Pertama, tunjukkan telapak tangan Anda, jari tengah ditekuk ke dalam (lihat gambar).
2. Kemudian, 4 jari yang lain pertemukan ujungnya.
3. Lalu cobalah buka ibu jari Anda. Ibu jari yang mewakili orang tua bisa dibuka karena kita akan membentuk suatu keluarga baru. Hal ini berarti kita akan membentuk kehidupan baru yang terpisah dari orangtua.
5. Tutup kembali ibu jari anda, kemudian buka jari telunjuk anda. Jari telunjuk mewakili kakak dan adik Anda. Jari itu bisa terbuka karena mereka mereka akan memiliki keluarga dan kehidupan sendiri yang terpisah dengan Anda.
6. Sekarang tutup kembali jari telunjuk anda, buka jari kelingking. Jari yang mewakili anak-anak Anda ini juga dibuka. Cepat atau lambat anak-anak juga akan membentuk keluarga dan kehidupan baru yang terpisah dengan Anda.
7. Selanjutnya, tutup jari kelingking Anda. Coba buka jari manis Anda tempat di mana kita menaruh cincin perkawinan. Anda akan akan heran karena jari tersebut tidak akan bisa dibuka. Jari manis ini mewakili suami dan istri. Artinya, selama hidup Anda dan pasangan akan terus bersama satu sama lain dalam menjalani kehidupan.
Itulah alasan cincin kawin disematkan di jari manis. Sehingga Anda dan pasangan akan terus bersama dan tak bisa terpisahkan dalam menjalani kehidupan.
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The Role of Middle Class in Indonesia and its Differences Other Countries

The middle class is any class of people in the middle of a societal hierarchy. In Weberian socio-economic terms, the middle class is the broad group of people in contemporary society who fall socio-economically between the working class and upper class .
The common measures of what constitutes middle class vary significantly between cultures. In urban India , for example, a family is considered middle class if it resides in an owner-occupied property. In the United States, many families where the primary income-earner is employed in a blue collar job consider themselves middle class, when in fact they are working class by the classic Weberian definition.
In the United Kingdom , the term middle class implies those people who typically have had a good education, own a sizeable family house, and hold a managerial or professional post. Those holding a senior role in a profession or ownership/directorship of a corporation are regarded as upper middle class. The upper class is generally regarded as those people with a title, eg Marquis, Baron or Duke .
A persistent source of confusion surrounding the term “middle class” derives predominantly from there being no set criteria for such a definition. From an economic perspective, for example, members of the middle class do not necessarily fall in the middle of a society’s income distribution. Instead, middle class salaries tend to be determined by middle class occupations, which in turn are attained by means of middle class values. Thus, individuals who might fall in the middle ground on a societal hierarchy as defined by sociologists do not necessarily fall into a middle ground on an economic hierarchy as defined by economists. As a result, intuitive colloquial and journalistic usage of the term casts a wide net and does not necessarily coincide with an academic sociological or economic definition.
The middle class is, essentially, a macro-social group embracing individuals, or rather categories of individuals, marked by a unique general attitude towards life. Those are people who owe everything to their own efforts, resources, qualification, education , etc. Self-made as they are, middle-class people are furthermore self-employed and relatively free and autonomous in their work. Their knowledge and qualification , property and managerial skills are intentionally acquired and so is their social status. Hence the specific medial stratification status of the group, in terms of the existent social, economic, political, cultural, etc. inequalities. Indeed, it is status hierarchy – in terms of occupation, education, income, property and social prestige – that reveals the unique medial position of the middle class people. And the status of the middle class within that hierarchy is clearly a unique one – in-between the “upper-class” elite and the “lower-class” workers, in-between the upper crust and the wage earners, in-between the envy of the world and the pitied ones.
No doubt, people who are middle class are relatively well off , the absolute amount of property owned and income received being conditioned on the well being of the specific society as a whole. Good or even high prestige is another important component, accordingly, characteristic, of the middle class status. Next comes the specific value system and culture , embracing a pro-active attitude towards life and a tendency for rational and modern consumption . Hence the individualistic middle class life style, innovative behaviour, realism, devotion to work, etc. No wonder, success and prosperity are the rule, rather than an exception among middle class people. Indeed, middle class actors are enterprising. This makes them active, flexible and adaptable in situations of uncertainty and quickly changing conditions. Hence the broader stabilizing effect the middle class brings into society as a whole. In a word, if society is to be genuinely coherent and integrated , a prosperous middle class is indispensable. Moreover, being a crucial factor for both stability and development , the middle class is to continue to play a vital positive role in society.
In concrete, empirical terms, there can be identified three basic middle class strata:
 First comes the stratum of enterprising people running small or medium-size businesses, or what is known as small or medium enterprises – SMEs. These are people relying on resources of their own – money, property and possessions. The stratum embraces, in the first place, shopkeepers and traders, craftsmen and small-scale manufacturers. Most of the businesses in consideration are self-employed and family-run. The rest of the enterprising middle class stratum comes from the small-scale and medium-size agricultural sector. Farmers, accordingly, SMEs in the farming sector, are an important component of the middle class.
 Then comes the stratum of public servants, administrators and managers (service class) Those are well-qualified employees of the state and local administration, as well as people with administrative and supervisory positions in the private sector. The authority of this category of people, accordingly, their responsibilities, vary from the national level to the local one, from the chief or deputy chief of a department to the rank-and-file supervisors, from the mayor or deputy mayor of a major city to the small local official.
 And, finally , there comes the intelligentsia, whose main resource is knowledge, culture, education, qualification and intelligence. The stratum embraces the various professionals and experts. Such are the specialists with higher education and genuine professional experience in their corresponding fields of expertise. Lawyers, doctors, architects and designers are intelligentsia too. So are also artists, writers, etc.
As regards leaders of the various local non-profit making organisations and initiatives , they belong to all three strata of the middle class. This is no surprise, considered that, as bread earners, public-spirited people are employed or engaged in the various public services and local business. Nevertheless, it is the local post-communist intelligentsia that has been the main driving force behind the “awakening” of the local non-governmental sector.

The middle class in Indonesia between 1910 and 1930 was so small that it seems almost irrelevant to talk about it if not for the fact that this group has a much greater interest than the size would indicate.

By 1925, of all industries employing more than six persons, 2,816 were owned by Europeans, 1,516 by Chinese, and only 865 by Indonesians, Arabs, and all other non-Europeans and non-Chinese combined. In 1928, less than 2% of Western educated Indonesians were self-employed, 83% worked for wages, only 2.1% of their employers being Indonesians. The remainder was unemployed. In 1928, of the 33.044 Indonesians who had at least primary education 45% were in government employ. Taking into consideration that only 75% were able to find jobs means that 60% of those who did find work, were employed by the Colonial Government.
The reasons for this situation are many. Everywhere during the first two decades of the twentieth century, the Javanese commercially interested group had been outmanoeuvred by the Chinese who had a long tradition of of entrepreneurial activity. The Javanese handicraftsmen were put out of work by the importation of cheap, mass-produced articles from Western Europe and later from Japan. As a colony, the Netherland-Indies were not allowed to develop a native industry. Even European controlled manufacturing industries could not survive in the colony, except for a short period during World War I, when the colony was isolated from the mother country. It was not that the Javanese society was still in a pre-capitalist state of development or that Dutch and Chinese entrepreneurial activities took place in virgin territory. The existing Javanese merchant class was eliminated by Western capitalism and Chinese traders who saw themselves supported by the colonial regime.
The important consequence of all this was that the Javanese middle class was almost entirely non-entrepeneurial. It consisted of government clerks, administrative clerks in the private sector, and of teachers, who were all dependent on jobs controlled by Dutch enterprise or the Colonial Government. The educated Indonesian élite, thwarted in its efforts to climb the social and economic ladder was, of course, opposed to the status quo in the colony, but this does not mean that they were therefore willing to become automatically leaders of political agitation.
The middle classes were also dependent on the state for the preservation of social order. This can be seen in the traditional role of authoritarian regimes to protect the middle class from the peasant-based reformist and revolutionary forces. As Samuel Huntington argues, the military, and by extension the state, serves as the “guardian” of the existing middle class as it opens the door to the middle class and closes it on the lower class. Indeed Indonesia’s historical background provides an insight into the weakness of the middle class as can be seen from the traditional strong state dominance in the pre-colonial and colonial eras. . [18] In addition, the strength of the revolutionary left and the potential rise of Islamic fundamentalism drove the middle class into the arms of the authoritarian Sukarno regime.
As can be seen, the power of the capital-owning middle classes was not in the formal sense, but only through their significance as keys to investment, production and economic growth, thereby ensuring the economic survival of the state. This resulted in the state being forced to intervene towards the resolution of political and economic crises that threatened the health of the system, and therefore creating a “pact of domination” between the middle class and the state in order to preserve social order. Consequently, the lack of autonomy among the middle class can be explained by its dependence on the coercive powers of the state to maintain the prevailing societal balance of power and to preserve social order.

The Role of Middle Class in Indonesia and its Differences Other Countries

When we turn to examine the differences and similarities across countries in the region, then the situation becomes even more complicated. In some cases, like Singapore, it would seem that for some observers, almost everyone is considered to be middle class, and, in others, like Brunei, it would appear that no one is. Again this is the result not just of the complexity of the category and the differences in experiences across the region, but also of variations in definition and emphasis on political, economic, social or cultural criteria.
For example, despite claims that Singapore is a relatively homogeneous ‘middle class society’, Tan discerns at least four classes, which, in terms of such criteria as income and occupation, he refers to as ‘upper’, ‘middle’, ‘working’ and ‘lower’ or ‘poor’, though he accepts that the majority of Singaporeans, both objectively and subjectively can be categorized as ‘middle class’, on the basis of low unemployment, and high rates of literacy and social mobility (2004: 1–19). Again mainly using income and occupation, Chua differentiates the Singapore population into a ‘techno-bureaucratic elite’, ‘middle management’ and ‘independent operators in the private sector’, ‘production and labouring workers’ and ‘those who continue to live in poverty’ (1997: 95).
In this scheme, Chua (1997) discerns two categories, namely middle management and independent operators in the private sector, which are often included in the middle class. On the other hand, Gunn (1993, 1997), in his study of Brunei society, where the level of income and education in well-funded public sector employment suggest a situation, in some respects similar to Singapore, Malaysia and other parts of Southeast Asia, manages to conclude that, though ‘a new consuming class’ has emerged there, it does not constitute a middle class. He reaches this conclusion because he questions whether this new class of higher earners and consumers in Brunei ‘is supported by the integuments of civil society matched by the emergence of truly autonomous institutions’, and he then responds to his own question in the negative (1993, 1997: 228).
His criteria therefore are based not merely on education, income, occupation and lifestyle, but on political considerations and evidence of processes of democratization. He concludes that in Brunei there is ‘an underdeveloped civil society characterized by low political inputs, low political participation, and seemingly low political consciousness’ (1997: xxii). Therefore, by his definition there is no middle class. There is a further complication where through economic exigencies members of the middle class undertake jobs which are not customarily associated with that class.
For example, in the case of the Philippines, large numbers of educated, middle class Filipinos are working in manual occupations overseas because of the lack of opportunities at home and the better remuneration, often in richer countries like Singapore, Malaysia and Brunei, where migrant workers can still release funds to repatriate to the Philippines (Bautista 2006a: 178–180, 2006b: 192–193).
With regard to the development and the origins of the new middle class from the 1970s, there are also variations between countries (Hsiao 1999, 2001). It has been discovered that the parents of over half of the new Malaysian middle class were ‘mostly farmers, workers or lower-rung white collar employees’ (Abdul Rahman Embong 2006b: 133). However, the percentage from this background was much lower in Thailand, with only about a fifth from lower class households; in addition the new middle class were heavily concentrated in Bangkok (a similar situation was found in the Philippines with a concentration in Manila), with the majority from various segments of the middle class itself, particularly the old middle class.
In Indonesia, the overwhelming majority of the current middle class are apparently themselves from middle class backgrounds (Hsiao & Wang 2001: 8–12). These different origins may well have a significant influence on the attitudes and values of the different members of the middle class. One of the reasons for the results of Hsiao’s research also appears to arise from the concentration of the research on major urban centres (Bangkok, Manila and Jakarta), where there would be a greater likelihood of the established middle class, especially those from the old urban middle class, reproducing themselves in the same or other segments of the middle class. Dhakidae suggests that because Jakarta has been ‘the very centre of the process of [Indonesian] industrialization’, this ‘has given rise to a specific kind of Indonesian middle class’ (2001: 509).

Finally, there has been considerable variation in the extent of recent growth of the ‘new middle class’ which has been at its greatest in Malaysia, with much lower levels in Indonesia and the Philippines. Furthermore, in the Philippines there was an early development of the middle class in the 1950s with the growth of Import Substitution Industrialization (ISI), and even before that with the introduction of a system of mass public education by the Americans, but a much slower rate of growth subsequently (Bautista 2001a: 44–48; Kimura 2003: 266–267, 283; Rivera 2001: 209–210). The survey, which focused on Metropolitan Manila, revealed that about 70% of the informants had grown up in the capital; a significant number also claimed their origins in middle rather than lower class families (Bautista 2001 b 110-113). Kimura says that the Philiphine middle class has ‘a relatively small populations’ and they ‘have developed through reproductions characteristic distinct from the agrarian population and working class’ (2003:283)

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The differences Between Stratification Theories of : Karl Mark, Gerhard Lenski, Max Webber

• Karl Marx and Max Weber disagreed on the meaning of social class in industrialized societies. According to Marx, people’s relationship to the means of production is the sole factor in determining their social class. They either belong to the bourgeoisie (those who owned the means of production) or the proletariat (those who work for the owners). According to Weber, Marx’s typology is too limiting since, in actuality, social class, as well as people’s social class standing, consists of three interrelated components: property, prestige, and power.
• Weber saw Marx’s two-class model simplistic. Instead, he thought social stratification involves three distinct dimensions of inequality. The first dimension is economic inequality—the issue so vital to Marx—which Weber called class position. Weber did not think of “classes” as crude categories but as a continuum ranging from high to low. Weber’s second dimension of social stratification is status, or social prestige, and the third is power. Weber’s view of social stratification in industrial societies as a multidimensional ranking rather than a hierarchy of clearly defined classes.
• Socioeconomic status (SES)-a composite ranking based on various dimensions of social inequality.
• Social stratification according to Weber is variable and complex.
Lenski coating theory is an attempt to unify the conflict and functionalism into a single entity within the framework of evolutionary theory. Departing from radical conflict theory postulates Lenski obtain hakiakat society, the use of coercion in Stratification systemand the degree to which social conflicts gave birth to the difference.
And conservative functionalism Lenski take a view on human nature and necessity of the existence of differences. Lenski trying to unify aspects of conservative and radical positions on how the rights and privilise obtained, and the role of the State in the stratification system
Power and Privilige is a study of the distribution system daritotalitas society in which Lenski try to answer the question: who got what and why?. In response causal relationship (kurvalinier) between technology and social structures maked, and stiffness stratification existing system.

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GERHARD LENSKI theory in social stratification

Gerhard Lenski developed a theory which in essence is more of a synthesis rather than simply aligning the theory conflicts with the functional analysis. Although his theory specifically related to social stratification, but he is actually an attempt to uncover the history of mankind for ten centuries into a sociological model. The combination of conflict and functionalist assumptions Lenski, as outlined in the quote beginning this chapter, created in an evolutionary framework. According to Lenski only evolutionary theory that can analyze the structure and process is limited by a series of traveling without both a short time.
Lenski stratification theory, therefore, tried to unite the efforts of the functionalist and conflict theorist to explain the existence and operation classes sosial.functionalist and conflict rested on two traditions are based on differences in assumptions about human nature and the nature of society. Functionalism relies on conservative tradition which saw stratification is important to meet the needs of society as a whole. On the other hand, conflict theory questioned the existence of “social needs. He is more concerned with a variety of needs, desires, and interests of individuals and sub-groups (rather than with the broader society) in their struggle to obtain goods and services that are valuable and rare. Such differences reflect the contradictory assumptions about human nature.
Lenski states that the functionalists emphasize the social nature of human beings: that human beings can not survive without both live in groups. However, at the same time, they “suspect hakiakat basic human and stressed the need for control over social agencies.
Lenski perspective on the whole dichotomy of categorical that look as good or bad human beings and society as a system or non-system rather than creating concepts that reflect the dichotomy of categorical yes or no, sociologists should try to establish the concepts of variables that reflect the degree to which a phenomenon present specific. Lenski states that fdungsional and conflict theory provides the propositions by which a single theory which can be obtained coatings.

Structural dynamics of the distribution system
By using the assumption of human nature from a more structural functional tradition of conservative and radical approach to conflict which, Lenski brings together two law develop goods and services. Both these polsulat, derived from assumptions Lenski, summarized as follows:
1.human are social creatures who need to live with the community
2. humans put them or the group’s main interests above the interests oaring or other groups (although they tried to conceal this fact on their own and of others)
3.human have an unlimited appetite for goods and services available in community
4. individu individuals inherited differences in the ability of business to obtain goods and services that are rare

Structure, coating systems
Lenski restrict the class as grouping people in society who are in the same position in terms of strength or some specific form of power, and prestige privilise. But in his discussion of Lenski focus is the class that thinked determine the distribution of power and perstise privilise in society with a surplus of goods so class is power In industrial societies are complex person can become a member of a number of class . class must be viewed from a multidimensional phenomenon.
Lenski restrict the class system as hirarkia classes are arranged in the levels of some single criterion Based on the postulates-postulates that diketengahakan dianamika on the structure and distribution systems, logically conclude that some propositions can be tested. Between propositions are
1. strata differences in the distribution systems will vary directly with the size of the surplus of a society
2. fast vertical mobility will tend to vary directly with the speed of social change and technology
3. hostilitystep is inversely related to grade level and above mobility

Proving the thesis stratification
Hunting and gathering society is a society where the techniques of food production is still primitive and not efisien. key to explain coating systems in such community is the absence of substantial economic surplus in the sense distribution goods almost evenly.
Horticulture society that has developed is very similar to hunting and gathering society in terms of scarcity of surplus make development of social class is more clear. As a result of increasing plantation techniques advanced horticulture society began to have a (slightly) surplus and then lead to a separate system. There we can see the origin of the class system is based primarily on the basis of birth rather than donations which can be given someone in the group.
Agrarian society is another important step, which may manifest through the discovery and utilization of animal plows. Lenski also showed that the production of technological progress offset by the progress of military technology, so that the techniques of fighting increasingly more industrial efisien societydescribe the next phase of evolutionary development of coating systems. In some ways this is very different society from an agrarian society. The emergence of industrial societies are ripe mark turning point of the first of an ancient evolutionary trend towards increasing differences .Lenski argues that his theory can be said is not a conservative or a radical theory, but is the integration of these two opposing theoretical perspective that explores theological developments over basic evolutionary framework

Critics of evolutionary synthesis Lenski
Lenski is very enthusiastic with the view of humans as the selfish creature alone . asumsi This is the core theory developed oeleh and is exactly the picture of humanity with the human model functionalism. However, Lenski writes’ adherence to rules can be explained solely as a form of awareness of personal interests “
From concept Lenski concluded that humans rarely have the freedom and is usually determined by the innate essence of selfishness, but somewhat restrained by the norms of social structure. Lenski social theory are more inclined towards the perspective of conflict rather than gambaranya about orang.dia reluctant to accept an established system of abstract and without turbulence.
Lenski coating study approach to addressing the historical use patterns that can be found among the historical facts of the particular. He asserted that the evolutionary model is correct and that must be analyzed is the community itself (not the abstract element)
Evolutionary model makes the social scientist can explore various developments and changes in social structure. It is also possible to identify various determinants of the structure which is the object of study. Identifying what it sees as the main determinant of social structure in human history:
1.warisan human genetics
2.teknologi which gradually formed to enhance this legacy
3.rintangan-barrier environment for human activities and technological developments, particularly the environment that impede the flow of information from other communities
4.chalange hard among the public in an effort to maintain the territorial base sources

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Max Weber theory in social stratification

Max Weber was strongly influenced by Marx’s ideas, but rejected the possibility of effective communism, arguing that it would require an even greater level of detrimental social control and bureaucratization than capitalist society. dialektika[8]teori-komponen tiga stratifikasikesempatan hidup Moreover, Weber criticized the dialectical presumption of proletariat revolt, believing it to be unlikely. Instead, he developed the three-component theory of stratification and the concept of life chances . fungsionalisMarxis
Weber supposed there were more class divisions than Marx suggested, taking different concepts from both functionalist and Marxist theories to create his own system. aksi sosial He emphasized the difference between class, status, and party, and treated these as separate but related sources of power, each with different effects on social action . kelas ataspekerja kerah putihborjuis mungilkelas pekerja Working around half a century later than Marx, Weber claimed there to be in fact four main classes: the upper class , the white collar workers , the petite bourgeoisie , and the manual working class . Barat Weber’s theory more-closely resembles modern Western class structures, although economic status does not seem to depend strictly on earnings in the way Weber envisioned.
Weber derived many of his key concepts on social stratification by examining the social structure of Germany . modal He noted that contrary to Marx’s theories, stratification was based on more than simply ownership of capital . Weber examined how many members of the aristocracy lacked economic wealth yet had strong political power. Yahudi Many wealthy families lacked prestige and power, for example, because they were Jewish . Weber introduced three independent factors that form his theory of stratification hierarchy; class, status, and power:
• Class : A person’s economic position in a society. Weber differs from Marx in that he does not see this as the supreme factor in stratification. proletariat Weber noted how managers of corporations or industries control firms they do not own; Marx would have placed such a person in the proletariat .
• Status : A person’s prestige, social honor, or popularity in a society. Weber noted that political power was not rooted in capital value solely, but also in one’s individual status. Poets or saints, for example, can possess immense influence on society with often little economic worth.
• Power : A person’s ability to get their way despite the resistance of others. Biro Investigasi FederalKongres Amerika Serikat[9] For example, individuals in state jobs, such as an employee of the Federal Bureau of Investigation , or a member of the United States Congress , may hold little property or status but they still hold immense power.
Max Weber, including one between sociologists who do not agree with the use of purely economic dimensions to determine the social stratification. Sociology Giddens in his book shows similarities between Marx and Weber:
“Like Marx, weber regarded society as characterized by conflict over power and resources”

Simultaneously the Difference
“Although Weber accepted Marx’s view that class is founded on objectively given economic factors as important in class formation than were recognized by Marx”

Both Marx and Weber both see that class is the stratification of society based on the economic dimension. But as we have said previously that Weber includes social scientists who reject the use of dimensions of economic stratification solely in menentukan social stratification of society.
According to Weber, social stratification is not as simple as to be explained by the class, he adds in his description of power in society that the differentiation of society can be viewed via the status groups, parties and classes.
Class according to Weber is the number of people who have similarities in terms of opportunities for life or fate (life chances). Opportunities to live person is determined by economic interests in the form of control over goods and the opportunity to earn income in the labor market or commodity market. As a result of haved master equation for goods and services in order to obtain a certain income, MKA people who are in the same class have in common is called a class situation.
Classroom situation is an equation in terms of opportunities for inventory control, personal life experience, or way of life. Categories basis for distinguishing the class is their wealth, and class are factors that create economic interests, at this point Marx and Weber’s class concept is the same, namely the class distinctions and factors that encourage the creation of the class.
Another dimension is the dimension used weber is honor. Human grouped in group status. Group status is a person who is in equal status situations, where people are chances of survival are determined by the size of honor, look at differentiation and courtiers sultan in Yogyakarta. The equation of honor expressed performance status equation lifestyle. In the area of this association can be a restriction in the association with a person whose status is lower. In addition to barring him in the association, according to Weber’s status groups characterized by the presence of the privileges and monopolies on goods and material and an ideal opportunity. In terms of lifestyle, this we can see from the style of consumption.
Besides the economic dimension of distinction and honor through Weber want’s that communities are also differentiated on the basis of its power. Power according to Weber is an opportunity for someone or some people to realize their own desires through a communal action even though experiencing opposition from people who participated in the communal action. Form of communal action is oriented towards the party which gained power.

Max Weber’s Methodology
Max Weber argued against abstract theory, and he favored an approach to sociological inquiry that generated its theory from rich, systematic, empirical, historical research. This approach required, first of all, an examination of the relationships between, and the respective roles of, history and sociology in inquiry. Weber argued that sociology was to develop concepts for the analysis of concrete phenomena, which would allow sociologists to then make generalizations about historical phenomena. History, on the other hand, would use a lexicon of sociological concepts in order to perform causal analysis of particular historical events, structures, and processes. In scholarly practice, according to Weber, sociology and history are interdependent.
Weber contended that understanding, or verstehen , was the proper way of studying social phenomena. Derived from the interpretive practice known as hermeneutics, the method of verstehen strives to understand the meanings that human beings attribute to their experiences, interactions, and actions. Weber construed v erstehen as a methodical, systematic, and rigorous form of inquiry that could be employed in both macro- and micro-sociological analysis.
Weber’s formulation of causality stresses the great variety of factors that may precipitate the emergence of complex phenomena such as modern capitalism. Moreover, Weber argued that social scientists, unlike natural scientists, must take into account the meanings that actors attribute to their interactions when considering causality. Weber, furthermore, sought a middle ground between nomothetic (general laws) and idiographic (idiosyncratic actions and events) views in his notion of a probabilistic adequate causality.
Weber’s greatest contribution to the conceptual arsenal of sociology is known as the ideal type. The ideal type is basically a theoretical model constructed by means of a detailed empirical study of a phenomenon. An ideal type is an intellectual construct that a sociologist may use to study historical realities by means of their similarities to, and divergences from, the model. Note that ideal types are not utopias or images of what the world ought to look like.
Weber urged sociologists to reflect on the role of values in both research and the classroom. When teaching, he argued, sociologists ought to teach students the facts, rather than indoctrinating them to a particular political or personal point of view. Weber did argue, however, that the values of one’s society often help to decide what a scholar will study. He contended that, while values play this very important role in the research process, they must be kept out of the collection and interpretation of data.

Max Weber’s Substantive Sociology
Max Weber’s sociology is fundamentally a science that employs both interpretive understanding and causal explanations of social action and interaction. His typology of the four types of social action is central to comprehending his sociology. According to Weber, social action may be classified as means-ends rational action, value-rational action, affectual action, or traditional action. Any student of Weber must keep in mind that these are ideal types.
Weber developed a multidimensional theory of stratification that incorporated class, status, and party. Class is determined by one’s economic or market situation (ie, life chances), and it is not a community but rather a possible basis for communal action. Status is a matter of honor, prestige, and one’s style of life. Parties, according to Weber, are organized structures that exist for the purposes of gaining domination in some sphere of social life. Class, status, and party may be related in many ways in a given empirical case, which provides the sociologist with a very sophisticated set of conceptual tools for the analysis of stratification and power.
Weber also made a profound contribution to the study of obedience with his ideal types of legitimate domination or authority. Rational-legal authority rests on rules and law. Traditional authority rests on belief in established practices and traditions – ie, authority is legitimate because it is exercised the way it has always been exercised. Charismatic authority rests on belief in the extraordinary powers or qualities of a leader. All of these forms of authority must take into account the point of view of those obeying commands.
Moreover, each form of authority is associated with a variety of structural forms of organization and administration. Legal authority, for example, is often associated with bureaucracy, while traditional authority is associated with gerontocracy, patriarchalism, patrimonialism, and feudalism. Charismatic authority may be associated with a charismatic form of organization. The dilemma of charismatic authority, however, consists of the difficulty of maintaining charisma when the charismatic leader dies. In other words, charismatic organizations tend to routinize charisma, which invariably gives rise to either traditional or rational-legal authority.
Weber also argued that rationalization is a long-term historical process that has transformed the modern world. His typology of forms of rationality is central to this argument. He argued that there are four types of rationality: practical, theoretical, formal, and substantive. He was most concerned with processes of formal and substantive rationalization, especially as propelled by capitalism and bureaucracy. Weber argued that rationalization has occurred in many spheres, including the economy, law, religion, politics, the city, and art.
Weber’s arguments regarding rationalization are exemplified in his studies of religion and capitalism. These sophisticated and voluminous studies inquire into the ways in which religious ideas, the spirit of capitalism, and capitalism as an economic system, are interrelated. In short, according to Weber, Calvinism as a rational, methodical system of religious beliefs and practices was an important factor in the emergence of modern capitalism in the Western world. The economic ethics of other religions, such as Hinduism and Confucianism, inhibited the emergence of modern capitalism in India and China. Once modern capitalism emerged in the Western world, however, it spread the effects of rationalization worldwide.
While Weber’s work has had a profound impact on sociology – as well as other disciplines – it is not without its critics. Some critics question the consistency and applicability of Weber’s method of verstehen . Others are puzzled by Weber’s methodological individualism as it is applied to macro-sociology. Some critics have rebuked Weber for failing to offer any alternatives to rationalization, capitalism, and bureaucracy. Finally, many critics decry Weber’s unflagging pessimism about the future of rationalization and bureaucracy.

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Karl Marx theory in social stratification

This dimension was originally enacted in pre-industrial society in which social stratification is not as complex system of industrial society. That is seven dimension of social stratification (theorized Bernard Baber), namely:
occupational prestige,authority and power ranking, income or wealth, educational and knowledge, religious and ritualpurity, kinship, ethnis group, and local community.
The seven dimensions, both together, will be able to assist in describted how the composition of the social stratification of a social group (community) and the factors underlying the formation of social stratification .Samuel Huntington argued that there describe stratification dimension to social modernization, namely : social strata (new) capable of realizing their aspirations (the new have) and social strata who are unable to realize their aspirations, or they lose in getting the position of strata in the community (the looser). This dimension is more focused social stratification which establishment is based on a variety of lifestyle symbol. Huntington theorizing is in some respects coincide with his theory of the Leisure Class Thorstei.
Mark is someone who shook the world with a keen and accurate analysis of the human condition in the era of capitalism.All thoughts of Karl Marx on the basis that the main actors in society are the social classes. Social classes were divided into based on its position in the production, according to them:
“Fundamental criteria that distinguish the classes is the position they had occupied in social production, and Consequently to determine their relationship to the means of production”.
Relationships where classes ranked the means of production determine their role in social organization of work, because the classes have different functions in social production. In some classes of society antagonist regulate the production, manage the economy and regulate all social affairs, such as those with excellence in mental work. While other classes suffer under the burden of hard physical work obligations.
Typically, in a society that tebagi above classes, production management is run by a class that has the means of production. But soon after some of the relations of production become an obstacle to the development of productive forces, the ruling classes must begin to play a distinct role in the social organization of work. He was gradually losing its significance as an organizer of production, and its position slipped into a garbage parasitic in the body of society and life for the hard work of others. As the fate of old feudal landlords, this is experienced by the bourgeoisie or capitalists now.
According to Marx the destruction of feudalism and the rise of capitalism have made the splitting of society into two classes that are antagonistic, ie the bourgeoisie who own the means of production and the proletariat who do not have the means of production. These two classes in Marxist terminology is called the fundamental class because of their irreconcilable or antagonist. The destruction of one of them is that in the history of motion manifested through class struggle.
Marx proved that capitalist society is the last community in human history with antagonistis classes. The road that leads to a classless society lies in the proletarian class struggle against all forms of oppression, in order to build strength in communities that were created to protect the interests of working people. Marx’s view of the working class as a major social force in the era of capitalism which has the ability to eliminated capitalist system and create a new classless society free of exploitation.
In Marxist theory, the capitalist mode of production consists of two main economic parts: the Base and the Superstructure. The base comprehends the relations of production — employer-employee work conditions, the technical division of labour , and property relations — into which people enter to produce the necessities and amenities of life. In the capitalist system, the ruling classes own the means of production , which essentially includes the working class itself as they only have their own labour power (‘ wage labour ‘) to offer in order to survive.
These relations fundamentally determine the ideas and philosophies of a society, constituting the superstructure. A temporary status quo is achieved by various methods of social control employed, consciously or unconsciously, by the bourgeoisie in the course of various aspects of social life. Through the ideology of the ruling class, false consciousness is promoted both through ostensibly political and non-political institutions, but also through the arts and other elements of culture .
Marx believed the capitalist mode would eventually give way, through its own internal conflict, to revolutionary consciousness and the development of egalitarian communist society.
Stratification and Conflict
• Social-Conflict analysis argues that rather than benefiting society as a whole, social stratification provides some people with advantages over others. This analysis draws heavily on the ideas of Karl Marx, with contributions from Max Weber.
• Marx saw great inequality in wealth and power arising from capitalism, which, he argued, made class conflict inevitable. In time, he believed, oppression and misery would drive the working majority to organize and ultimately overthrow capitalism.
• Marx explained the through the family, opportunity and wealth are passed down from generation to generation. Moreover, the legal system defends private property and inheritance. Finally, elite children mix at exclusive schools, forging social ties that will benefit them throughout their lives. Capitalist society reproduces the class structure in each new generation.

The History of Classes

In Marx’s law of community development based on one about historical materialism, at first there was no class in society that is in the era of primitive communal. In this era, people should help each other in order to survive and protect themselves various beasts of prey. This forced people to stay settled, for human survival time hunting animals, gathering food (plants and fruits) that can be eaten together. Their residence was divided, and a distinction between one human group over the other. Various kinds of skills, language emerged. All these things to identificated as a tribe or clan.
In this work initially differentiated between men and women, and are distinguished on the basis of groups of different age. Then develop in kakhasan routine work done by community growers, ranchers and hunters. The division of labor is the prerogative of members of the community of the oldest and most experienced. However, they are not regarded as a class that has special privileges because their numbers are small compared with the majority of adults in addition to their right in community obtained through approval of a majority of adults. Their special position lies in his authority, on ownership of property or their strength. In this era of the production would be made only to meet immediate needs, so there is no land to root social injustice.
After the primitive communal era gradually faded, many things that cause this to happen, other than historical necessity. The end of this era did not occur simultaneously in this world regions sebgai examples of African countries, the formation of new classes began to form after tresingkirkan colonial regimes, ie since the 1950’s while the class in Ancient Egypt in the late 4th millennium and in the early 3rd millennium BC.
The emergence of social classes is due to the social division of labor, while private ownership of means of production become a reality. Marx did stratification of society based on the economic dimension, where the most basic thing in it is the ownership of the means of production. As always he said on many writings, the division of labor which is a source of social injustice arising from the weakening of primitive communal society.
“One of the most general pre-condition of the presence of a class divided society is the development of productive forces.”
In the course of its length, this process raises the level of production that moves much higher than that required people to resume their lives. So a surplus of product gives to mankind more than he needed, and as a consequence, social injustice is gradually growing on its own in the community Along with private ownership of means of production that controls the development of productive forces, and the production of individual or family has menghapuska previous communal production, economic injustice becomes unavoidable and this condition of society into classes.
The leaders and community elders who have authority in a community to protect this common interest. Including in terms of supervision and decision making which considers fair by the community. This case also we could call the elementary state power, but basically they never stopped serving the community.
The development of productive forces and the incorporation of these communities into larger entities leading to further division of labor. In development formed specialized agencies whose function is to protect mutual interests and jury in disputes between communities. Gradually, these bodies have greater autonomy and separate himself from society as well as represent the interests of major social groups. This autonomy of the public affairs officer changed into the form of dominance over the shaping of society, a longtime public servant is now the officials had turned into lords (Lords).
“In general, the development of social production requires human labor more in order to engage in material production. No community is able to menyediakan thing itself, and additional human labor is provided by the war “
Another way is through enslaving class formation against enemy troops who were captured during the war. The participants began to realize that war is more fungtion to let the prisoners live and forcing them to continue their work. So their rights revoked and treated as human beings are like animals worker.
In a further development of society, we will know contra classes. This is because their interests can not always be found. In Marxist terminology we will recognize that class to differentiate into two kinds of shape and nature of the fundamental classes and classes non-fundamental.

Fundamental classes are classes whose existence is determined by the mode of production that dominate in certain socio-economic formations. Each social formation has two antagonistic economic fundamentals class. These classes can be a slave owner and slave, feudal lord and his servant, or bourgeoisie and the proletariat. Antagonistic contradictions between the classes are changed by the replacement of the existing system with a new progressive system.
Non-fundamental classes are the scars or the remnants of the old class system and can still be seen in the new system, this class typically develop a new mode of production in the form of a specific economic structure. For example the traders, moneylenders, small farmers who are in public ownership of slaves with the fundamental class of slaves and slave owners.
Fundamental classes and non-fundamentals are closely interdependent, because in the development history, the fundamental class can be a non-fundamentals, and vice versa. A fundamental kels degenerated into a non-fundamental class saaat the dominant mode of production of the underlying is gradually transformed into a secondary socio-economic structure. A non-fundamentals class to be fundamental when a new socioeconomic structure contained within a socio-economic formations became the dominant mode of production.
Communities can also have a layer of people who do not belong to certain classes, that is not classy elements that have lost their ties with their home class. This applies to the lumpen lcapitalism which consists of people with no particular job or commonly referred to as the garbage of society, such as beggars, prostitutes, thieves and the like.
Besides classes, there are other large social group boundary line is located on a different background with the background of the division-class background, he just maybe basic on age, gender, race, profession, and other distinguishing features.

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social Stratification

Human society consists of diverse groups of people who has differences characteristics can include color, height, sex, age, residence, religion or political beliefs, income or education. This distinction is often made even may be required. All human beings are born equal as long as we know, through the opinions of wise men and our parents or even the people closest to us. Such opinion was nothing more than nonsense that is always embedded to any person either to what they always impart it to us.

In the reality of everyday life, the fact it is the inequality. Some opinions say sociological inequality in all societies are found in various fields such as just in the economic dimension: some members of society have an abundance of wealth and prosperity of his life is assured, while the remaining poor and live in conditions that are far from prosperous. In other dimensions such as power: some people have power, while the others controlled. Like it or not this is the reality of society, at least a reality that can only be captured by the five human senses and thinking ability. Differentiation of members of this community in sociology called social stratification.
Often in our daily experience of seeing social phenomena such as someone who had had a certain status in the future to obtain a higher status than the previous status. This so-called social mobility. Stratification System according to nature can be classified into open and closed stratification, the example mentioned above was an example of open stratification in which social mobility is possible.

A closed system of stratification is called when every member of society remain in the same status as their parents, while the open named because every member of society occupy a different status with their parents, could be higher or lower. Social Mobility called earlier mean displacement status in social stratification. Many reasons can enable individuals or groups move status, education and employment for example is one of the factors that may cause the displacement of this status.

“ Historically four basic systems of stratification have existed in human societies: slavery, caste, estates and class “

By definition, social stratification is a concept that shows the differences/ or grouping of a social group (community) in stages. For example: is there in community high stratum, stratum medium and low strata. Differentiation and / or grouping is based on the existence of certain symbols that are considered berharga value – either precious or valuable social, economic, political, legal, culture or another dimension – in a social group (community). E.g. symbols, wealth, education, occupation, in religious piety, and employment.

In sociology and other social sciences , social stratification refers to the hierarchical arrangement of individuals into divisions of power and wealth within a society . Stratification derives from the geological concept of strata – rock layers created by natural processes. [1 ] The term most commonly relates to the socio-economic concept of class , involving the “classification of persons into groups based on shared socio-economic conditions … a relational set of inequalities with economic, social, political and ideological dimensions.”

In modern Western societies , stratification is broadly organized into three main layers: upper class , middle class , and lower class . Each class may be further subdivided into smaller classes (eg occupational). These categories are particular to state-level societies as distinguished from, for instance, feudal societies composed of nobility -to- peasant relations.  Stratification may also be defined by kinship ties or castes .  For Max Weber , social class pertaining broadly to material wealth is distinguished from status class which is based on such variables as honor, prestige and religious affiliation.  It is debatable whether the earliest hunter-gatherer groups may be defined as ‘stratified’, or if such differentials began with agriculture and broad acts of exchange between groups. . One of the ongoing issues in determining social stratification arises from the point that status inequalities between individuals are common, so it becomes a quantitative issue to determine how much inequality qualifies as stratification.

Social stratification is used to show the inequality in human society. As was mentioned above that many dimensions of social stratification, however, not all dimensions will be written in this paper considering my limited knowledge about this. However, some stratification is important that I think I will write. First, slavery as we know the system like this society was divided into two slaves and slave owners. Where a person or group of persons as property owned by someone. But this has long no longer apply today. One cause is slave is war. Where the losing party then made prisoner forced labor .. Second, this caste associated with the belief India where they believe in reincarnation that people will be born again, and every person must live their lives according to caste, and for those who do not perform the obligations under the caste in the next life will be reborn in the caste lower.

Every person in this caste system caste gain levels based on their caste family. But that is still not clear here is on what grounds and where their families to obtain positions in the caste? Third, this Estates closely related to the Feudal system in which the position of a person judged by how many he owns the land. This land is a gift or reward for the kings for their support against the king. Fourth, the class is the division of society on the basis of economic ability, reflected in his lifestyle. Social changes experienced by the society since the days of slavery until the industrial revolution until now has been fundamentally and comprehensively show of division of labor in society. Based on these two social differentiation does not only mean an increase in the differences of horizontally and vertically.

This has attracted the pioneers of sociology beginning to pay attention to social differentiation, which includes social stratification. The apparent discrepancy in the community also has a variety of implications in everyday life. Who’s who later became a key obtained access other kind of privilege in society that basically privilege is the result of loot and domination by force by the one against the other, dominating and dominated, which is ultimately a source of inequality in society . Various arguments were put forward to explain this inequality which later turned into injustice.

>>the Dimention of Social Stratification

There are many dimensions that can be used to describe the social stratification that in  a social group or community (Svalastoga, 1989), for example: dimension of own kekayaan (theorized Koentjaraningrat), so there is a strata wealthy and the underprivileged. Initially, in this dimension is used to identify the Java community, so that called own wealth will become a focus on economic symbols commonly appreciated Java Society. For example, ownership of land (house, yard or farm). Dimensions distribution of resources theorized by Gerhard Lensky, where there are strata of landlords, the free peasant strata, the strata of merchants, employees strata, the strata of farmers, craftsmen strata, and strata beggars .

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Henri Fayol – Administration


Description

With two exceptions, Henri Fayol’s theories of administration dovetail nicely into the bureaucratic superstructure described by Weber. Henri Fayol focuses on the personal duties of management at a much more granular level than Weber did. While Weber laid out principles for an ideal bureaucratic organization Fayol’s work is more directed at the management layer.

Fayol believed that management had five principle roles: to forecast and plan, to organize, to command, to co-ordinate and to control. Forecasting and planning was the act of anticipating the future and acting accordingly. Organization was the development of the institution’s resources, both material and human. Commanding was keeping the institution’s actions and processes running. Co-ordination was the alignment and harmonization of the groups’ efforts. Finally, control meant that the above activities were performed in accordance with appropriate rules and procedures.

Fayol developed fourteen principles of administration to go along with management’s five primary roles. These principles are enumerated below:

  • Specialization/division of labor
  • Authority with responsibility
  • Discipline
  • Unity of command
  • Unity of direction
  • Subordination of individual interest to the general interest
  • Remuneration of staff
  • Centralization
  • Scalar chain/line of authority
  • Order
  • Equity
  • Stability of tenure
  • Initiative
  • Esprit de corps

The final two principles, initiative and esprit de corps, show a difference between Fayol’s concept of an ideal organization and Weber’s. Weber predicted a completely impersonal organization with little human level interaction between its members. Fayol clearly believed personal effort and team dynamics were part of a “ideal” organization.

Environment

Fayol was a successful mining engineer and senior executive prior to publishing his principles of “administrative science.” It is not clear from the literature reviewed if Fayol’s work was precipitated or influenced by Taylor’s. From the timing, 1911 publication of Taylor’s “The Principles of Scientific Management” to Fayol’s work in 1916, it is possible. Fayol was not primarily a theorist, but rather a successful senior manager who sought to bring order to his personal experiences.

Successes

Fayol’s five principle roles of management are still actively practiced today. The author has found “Plan, Organize, Command, Co-ordinate and Control” written on one than one manager’s whiteboard during his career. The concept of giving appropriate authority with responsibility is also widely commented on (if not well practiced.) Unfortunately his principles of “unity of command” and “unity of direction” are consistently violated in “matrix management” the structure of choice for many of today’s companies.

Conclusion

It is clear that modern organizations are strongly influenced by the theories of Taylor, Mayo, Weber and Fayol. Their precepts have become such a strong part of modern management that it is difficult to believe that these concepts were original and new at some point in history. The modern idea that these concepts are “common sense” is strong tribute to these founders.

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