This dimension was originally enacted in pre-industrial society in which social stratification is not as complex system of industrial society. That is seven dimension of social stratification (theorized Bernard Baber), namely:
occupational prestige,authority and power ranking, income or wealth, educational and knowledge, religious and ritualpurity, kinship, ethnis group, and local community.
The seven dimensions, both together, will be able to assist in describted how the composition of the social stratification of a social group (community) and the factors underlying the formation of social stratification .Samuel Huntington argued that there describe stratification dimension to social modernization, namely : social strata (new) capable of realizing their aspirations (the new have) and social strata who are unable to realize their aspirations, or they lose in getting the position of strata in the community (the looser). This dimension is more focused social stratification which establishment is based on a variety of lifestyle symbol. Huntington theorizing is in some respects coincide with his theory of the Leisure Class Thorstei.
Mark is someone who shook the world with a keen and accurate analysis of the human condition in the era of capitalism.All thoughts of Karl Marx on the basis that the main actors in society are the social classes. Social classes were divided into based on its position in the production, according to them:
“Fundamental criteria that distinguish the classes is the position they had occupied in social production, and Consequently to determine their relationship to the means of production”.
Relationships where classes ranked the means of production determine their role in social organization of work, because the classes have different functions in social production. In some classes of society antagonist regulate the production, manage the economy and regulate all social affairs, such as those with excellence in mental work. While other classes suffer under the burden of hard physical work obligations.
Typically, in a society that tebagi above classes, production management is run by a class that has the means of production. But soon after some of the relations of production become an obstacle to the development of productive forces, the ruling classes must begin to play a distinct role in the social organization of work. He was gradually losing its significance as an organizer of production, and its position slipped into a garbage parasitic in the body of society and life for the hard work of others. As the fate of old feudal landlords, this is experienced by the bourgeoisie or capitalists now.
According to Marx the destruction of feudalism and the rise of capitalism have made the splitting of society into two classes that are antagonistic, ie the bourgeoisie who own the means of production and the proletariat who do not have the means of production. These two classes in Marxist terminology is called the fundamental class because of their irreconcilable or antagonist. The destruction of one of them is that in the history of motion manifested through class struggle.
Marx proved that capitalist society is the last community in human history with antagonistis classes. The road that leads to a classless society lies in the proletarian class struggle against all forms of oppression, in order to build strength in communities that were created to protect the interests of working people. Marx’s view of the working class as a major social force in the era of capitalism which has the ability to eliminated capitalist system and create a new classless society free of exploitation.
In Marxist theory, the capitalist mode of production consists of two main economic parts: the Base and the Superstructure. The base comprehends the relations of production — employer-employee work conditions, the technical division of labour , and property relations — into which people enter to produce the necessities and amenities of life. In the capitalist system, the ruling classes own the means of production , which essentially includes the working class itself as they only have their own labour power (‘ wage labour ‘) to offer in order to survive.
These relations fundamentally determine the ideas and philosophies of a society, constituting the superstructure. A temporary status quo is achieved by various methods of social control employed, consciously or unconsciously, by the bourgeoisie in the course of various aspects of social life. Through the ideology of the ruling class, false consciousness is promoted both through ostensibly political and non-political institutions, but also through the arts and other elements of culture .
Marx believed the capitalist mode would eventually give way, through its own internal conflict, to revolutionary consciousness and the development of egalitarian communist society.
Stratification and Conflict
• Social-Conflict analysis argues that rather than benefiting society as a whole, social stratification provides some people with advantages over others. This analysis draws heavily on the ideas of Karl Marx, with contributions from Max Weber.
• Marx saw great inequality in wealth and power arising from capitalism, which, he argued, made class conflict inevitable. In time, he believed, oppression and misery would drive the working majority to organize and ultimately overthrow capitalism.
• Marx explained the through the family, opportunity and wealth are passed down from generation to generation. Moreover, the legal system defends private property and inheritance. Finally, elite children mix at exclusive schools, forging social ties that will benefit them throughout their lives. Capitalist society reproduces the class structure in each new generation.
The History of Classes
In Marx’s law of community development based on one about historical materialism, at first there was no class in society that is in the era of primitive communal. In this era, people should help each other in order to survive and protect themselves various beasts of prey. This forced people to stay settled, for human survival time hunting animals, gathering food (plants and fruits) that can be eaten together. Their residence was divided, and a distinction between one human group over the other. Various kinds of skills, language emerged. All these things to identificated as a tribe or clan.
In this work initially differentiated between men and women, and are distinguished on the basis of groups of different age. Then develop in kakhasan routine work done by community growers, ranchers and hunters. The division of labor is the prerogative of members of the community of the oldest and most experienced. However, they are not regarded as a class that has special privileges because their numbers are small compared with the majority of adults in addition to their right in community obtained through approval of a majority of adults. Their special position lies in his authority, on ownership of property or their strength. In this era of the production would be made only to meet immediate needs, so there is no land to root social injustice.
After the primitive communal era gradually faded, many things that cause this to happen, other than historical necessity. The end of this era did not occur simultaneously in this world regions sebgai examples of African countries, the formation of new classes began to form after tresingkirkan colonial regimes, ie since the 1950′s while the class in Ancient Egypt in the late 4th millennium and in the early 3rd millennium BC.
The emergence of social classes is due to the social division of labor, while private ownership of means of production become a reality. Marx did stratification of society based on the economic dimension, where the most basic thing in it is the ownership of the means of production. As always he said on many writings, the division of labor which is a source of social injustice arising from the weakening of primitive communal society.
“One of the most general pre-condition of the presence of a class divided society is the development of productive forces.”
In the course of its length, this process raises the level of production that moves much higher than that required people to resume their lives. So a surplus of product gives to mankind more than he needed, and as a consequence, social injustice is gradually growing on its own in the community Along with private ownership of means of production that controls the development of productive forces, and the production of individual or family has menghapuska previous communal production, economic injustice becomes unavoidable and this condition of society into classes.
The leaders and community elders who have authority in a community to protect this common interest. Including in terms of supervision and decision making which considers fair by the community. This case also we could call the elementary state power, but basically they never stopped serving the community.
The development of productive forces and the incorporation of these communities into larger entities leading to further division of labor. In development formed specialized agencies whose function is to protect mutual interests and jury in disputes between communities. Gradually, these bodies have greater autonomy and separate himself from society as well as represent the interests of major social groups. This autonomy of the public affairs officer changed into the form of dominance over the shaping of society, a longtime public servant is now the officials had turned into lords (Lords).
“In general, the development of social production requires human labor more in order to engage in material production. No community is able to menyediakan thing itself, and additional human labor is provided by the war “
Another way is through enslaving class formation against enemy troops who were captured during the war. The participants began to realize that war is more fungtion to let the prisoners live and forcing them to continue their work. So their rights revoked and treated as human beings are like animals worker.
In a further development of society, we will know contra classes. This is because their interests can not always be found. In Marxist terminology we will recognize that class to differentiate into two kinds of shape and nature of the fundamental classes and classes non-fundamental.
Fundamental classes are classes whose existence is determined by the mode of production that dominate in certain socio-economic formations. Each social formation has two antagonistic economic fundamentals class. These classes can be a slave owner and slave, feudal lord and his servant, or bourgeoisie and the proletariat. Antagonistic contradictions between the classes are changed by the replacement of the existing system with a new progressive system.
Non-fundamental classes are the scars or the remnants of the old class system and can still be seen in the new system, this class typically develop a new mode of production in the form of a specific economic structure. For example the traders, moneylenders, small farmers who are in public ownership of slaves with the fundamental class of slaves and slave owners.
Fundamental classes and non-fundamentals are closely interdependent, because in the development history, the fundamental class can be a non-fundamentals, and vice versa. A fundamental kels degenerated into a non-fundamental class saaat the dominant mode of production of the underlying is gradually transformed into a secondary socio-economic structure. A non-fundamentals class to be fundamental when a new socioeconomic structure contained within a socio-economic formations became the dominant mode of production.
Communities can also have a layer of people who do not belong to certain classes, that is not classy elements that have lost their ties with their home class. This applies to the lumpen lcapitalism which consists of people with no particular job or commonly referred to as the garbage of society, such as beggars, prostitutes, thieves and the like.
Besides classes, there are other large social group boundary line is located on a different background with the background of the division-class background, he just maybe basic on age, gender, race, profession, and other distinguishing features.